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    Studies & Papers

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    All ICEERS’ studies are peer-reviewed, published in indexed and high-impact journals and follow the strictest methodological and ethical standards.

    cannabis public health

    Cannabis and Public Health

    In this study, for the first time, regular cannabis consumers in Spain were assessed using health indicators, comparing these data with the general population.

    ayahuasca endocannabinoid system

    Effects of Ayahuasca on the Endocannabinoid System

    This study assessed endocannabinoid (anandamide, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2-AG) plasma levels in healthy volunteers and in volunteers with social anxiety disorder (SAD) after a single oral dose of ayahuasca or placebo.

    cannabis pest control pesticide marihuana marijuana weed ICEERS study pesticida

    The Use of Cannabis for Pest Control

    It is the first study in a new line of research focused on how psychoactive plants can have an impact on the damage caused by climate change. Cannabis, as an eco-friendly product, could replace the use of chemical pesticides for pest control.

    harm reduction cannabis social clubs risks reducción de riesgos ICEERS study

    Harm Reduction and Cannabis Social Clubs

    This study aimed to serve as a contribution to the existing literature about Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) and their potential as harm-reduction and risk-minimization agents for cannabis use.

    psychotomimetic effects cannabis extracts THC CBD

    Psychotomimetic Effects of Cannabis Extracts

    The aim of this study was to determine how CBD could counteract the subjective and psychotomimetic effects of THC in a contextual setting, expecting that participants under the effects of THC would show greater subjective and psychotomimetic effects when compared with CBD and placebo, and that THC-CBD coadministration would counteract subjective and psychotomimetic effects of THC.

    ritual cannabis Catalonia

    The Ritual Use of Cannabis in a Self-Managed Community

    This paper, led by Maja Kohek, ICEERS’ associate researcher, about her field work on the ritual use of cannabis in a self-managed community, presents various examples of non-problematic drug use observed in a community in Catalonia, where a variety of psychoactive substances are used in ritual settings.

    medical cannabis patients chronic illnesses Catalan enfermedades crónicas ICEERS study

    Medical Cannabis in Patients with Chronic Illnesses

    This cross-sectional study describes the social and health realities of a sample of Catalan therapeutic cannabis users with chronic illnesses, with the aim that professional pharmacists and other health professionals can learn in detail how this practice works.

    CBD THC cannabis marihuana marijuana weed recognition facial expressions emociones study ICEERS

    Effects of CBD and THC on the Recognition of Emotions

    The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate how THC and CBD alter the recognition of emotions in facial expressions analyzing all randomized control trials done to date regarding the effect of these substances on this measure of social cognition.

    cannabis policy drugs European Union EU UE Europe

    Cannabis Policy Innovations and Challenges in Drug Policy

    Drug policies in the European Union have not included positions on the regulation of cannabis, making it difficult for them to speak with one voice in this field. Member states implement divergent approaches to drug control, with a lack of consensus regarding drug policy reforms. 

    study research cannabis social clubs CSC CSCs estudio research

    Issues from the Study of Cannabis Social Clubs

    This article, published in the journal Methodological Innovations, reflects on the research experiences of the authors in studying Cannabis Social Clubs, providing insights for research in this area and within criminology and socio-legal studies more broadly.

    CSC cannabis social club clubs clubes marihuana marijuana ICEERS study Europe Europa

    Mapping Cannabis Social Clubs in Europe

    The CSC model remains prohibited across the EU. CSC activists have thus by and large shaped the way CSCs operate, often adapting to domestic law particularities or law enforcement activities. In this article, we present and discuss the range of CSC practices from 13 different European countries, and what these represent for the consideration of the CSC model in current policy debates.

    Cannabis Social Clubs Barcelona ICEERS study use

    Cannabis Social Clubs in Barcelona

    In Spain, cannabis users are turning to Cannabis Social Clubs (CSCs) as an alternative for obtaining supplies of the substance, free from the risks of the illegal market. The current study aims to establish the profile of a sample (N = 155) of Spanish CSC members and identify the impacts that these clubs have had on their consumption.

    cannabis marihuana marijuana substance use disorder ICEERS study

    Cannabis in the Treatment of Substance Use Disorder

    This article represents chapter 8 of the book Advances in Psychedelic Medicine: State-of-the-Art Therapeutic Applications, edited by M. Winkelman and B. Sessa, and published by ABC-CLIO as part of a project called Psychoactive Plants and Public Health.

    cannabis social club federations CSC federación CSCs marihuana marijuana

    The Role Played by Cannabis Social Club Federations

    This exploratory study seeks to shed light onto how current Cannabis Social Clubs in Barcelona are operating and on whether and how their affiliation with a federation has shaped their practices. In particular, it aims to uncover the differences and similarities between federated and non-federated clubs and investigates whether federated ones adhere in practice to their respective codes of conduct.

    uso terapéutico cannabis therapeutic use marihuana marijuana study

    Therapeutic Use of Cannabis

    The article reviews the therapeutic use of cannabis, from the direct consumption of the plant to the use of one or more of its components or even of compounds synthesized in a laboratory.

    efectos sociosanitarios consumo cannabis España social health effects cannabis Spain

    Social and Health Effects of Cannabis Use in Spain

    The legal status of cannabis and the entire state response to ensure this status have generated an imaginary in which solutions are often polarized. This chapter discusses, based on scientific evidence and the analysis of epidemiological data, the social and health effects caused by prohibitionist policies on cannabis in order to differentiate them from the direct harm caused by cannabis.

    riesgos cannabis medicinal medical marihuana risks ICEERS study

    Risks Associated With Cannabis Treatments

    This report, written by Mariano García de Palau, medical director of Kalapa Clinic, and José Carlos Bouso, scientific director of ICEERS, constitutes chapter 15 of the book Efectos terapéuticos de los cannabinoides, edited by the Instituto Universitario de Investigación en Neuroquímica of the Complutense University of Madrid and coordinated by José Antonio Ramos Atance.

    sistema endocannabinoide farmacología cannabis marihuana marijuana pharmacology

    Endocannabinoid System and Cannabis Pharmacology

    Las sendas de la regulación del cannabis en España is a collectively authored book, promoted by the Regulación Responsable platform, where the different prisms of cannabis are addressed, with special emphasis on sociocultural, educational and legal aspects. Chapter 12 of this polyphonic work is dedicated to the endocannabinoid system and the pharmacology of cannabis.

    marijuana marihuana cannabis medicina medicinal medical medicine mariguana ICEERS

    Marijuana as a Medicine? Medical and Therapeutic Uses

    The objective of the report is to provide the necessary medical-scientific answers for policy-makers to promote alternative policies on medical cannabis, describing only the variety of applications of the plant and its derivatives in the medical field, according to the available evidence.

    drug policy policies Catalonya políticas de drogas Cataluña cannabis ICEERS study

    Drug Policies in Catalonia, From Local Action to Global Change

    The first study in the “Lessons in Drug Policy” series explores and documents the formulation of drug policies at the sub-state level in Catalonia, first conducting a brief historical review of the social reality of drugs in Spain to contextualise why there are some specific drug policies and not others, and why these policies differ depending on the different territories of the State. 

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    26 pages with all the latest research-based facts about ayahuasca, its uses, pharmacology, legal status and therapeutic effects, signed by 11 world-class experts and researchers.