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    Studies & Papers

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    All ICEERS’ studies are peer-reviewed, published in indexed and high-impact journals and follow the strictest methodological and ethical standards.

    psychedelic integration integración psicodélica

    Call for Evidence-Based Psychedelic Integration

    The authors emphasize the importance of developing and validating models and methods for psychedelic integration practices that help users of psychedelics to process and integrate their experiences into their daily lives.

    psychedelic social club

    The Psychedelic Social Club

    The authors propose community or peer-based structures as a viable means to control the supply of psilocybin-containing mushrooms and ensure a safe environment for non-medical use.

    hallucinogens well-being

    Hallucinogens, Well-Being, and Post-traumatic Growth

    The COVID-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the health and wellbeing of the global population. This paper presents the results of a longitudinal transcultural study that was begun at the peak of the pandemic (in April, 2020).

    hallucinations hallucinogens

    Hallucinations and Hallucinogens: Psychopathology or Wisdom?

    This study proposes that, in light of historical, epidemiological, and scientific research, hallucinations can be better characterized as a common phenomenon associated sometimes with psychopathology but also with functional and even beneficial outcomes.

    San Pedro natural products psychedelic research clinical use hallucinogens

    Learning From the Natural Product Research

    In this letter to the editor, the authors suggest that the well-established research with natural products can offer valuable insights for hallucinogen researchers, as they remain one of the main sources for the development of pharmaceuticals.

    psychedelic research investigación psicodélica

    The Illusion of Knowledge in Psychedelic Research

    In this manuscript, we present the main methodological issues in psychedelic research, ranging from the most manageable (e.g., non-representative samples) to the most complex (e.g., limitations of the biomedical model).

    squirrel DMT dimethyltryptamine 0mammalian

    Significance of Mammalian Dimethyltryptamine

    This study explores historical and recent literature regarding endogenous DMT, with a special interest in the most controversial topics. It also delves into technical aspects that are not discussed in other reviews, in order to offer new insights.

    psychedelic drugs COVID-19 pandemic ICEERS study

    Lifetime Use of Psychedelic Drugs During the COVID-19 Confinement

    One of the main public health strategies adopted at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic consisted of implementing strict lockdowns to stop the transmission of the virus. Despite being an effective measure, the confinement and the associated social isolation create a stressful, potentially lengthy situations that has been proven to have several psychological consequences. Given the potential benefits that certain psychedelic drugs have shown for the treatment of psychological disorders, this study aimed to assess the impact of lifetime psychedelic drug use on mental health in relation to the first strict lockdown adopted by various countries (April-July 2020).

    rain water leaf psychedelic depression ICEERS study

    Psychedelic Medicines in Major Depression

    The volume of research on the therapeutic use of psychedelic drugs has been increasing during the last decades. Partly because of the need of innovative treatments in psychiatry, several studies have assessed the safety and efficacy of drugs like psilocybin or ayahuasca for a wide range of mental disorders, including major depression. 

    placebo effect microdosing psychedelics ICEERS study efecto placebo microdosis psicodélicos

    Influence of the Placebo Effect in Microdosing Psychedelics

    In order to summarize the current evidence on microdosing and help future studies, this study presents a systematic review exploring issues like the safety of microdosing, main reported benefits, and what aspects of these benefits might be attributed to a placebo effect.

    psychedelics pandemic pandemia psicodélicos hallucinogens ICEERS study

    Psychedelics in Times of Pandemic Outbreaks

    On Sep 28, 2020, Maja Kohek and others published “Psychedelics in times of pandemic outbreaks,” a chapter of the book RESET: Reflexiones antropológicas ante la pandemia de COVID-19, where the authors propose considering the potential of psychedelics to help people deal with some of the challenges that we are facing in pandemic times.

    psychedelic drugs hallucinogens innovation psychiatry ICEERS study

    Psychedelic Drugs as an Innovation in Psychiatry

    The need for innovative treatments in psychiatry could be responded to in part through the greater introduction of psychedelic psychotherapies, as they represent an integrative approach to mental health, involving the use of pharmacological tools that can be combined with enhanced psychotherapeutic interventions.

    end-stage cancer psychedelics hallucinogens ICEERS study

    Serotonergic Hallucinogens in End-Stage Cancer

    In this commentary, we expand the information available on the original article by briefly reviewing data from recent placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over clinical trials showing evidence that administration of single (or few) doses of LSD and psilocybin was associated with rapid and sustained reductions in depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients with end-stage cancer and other life-threatening diseases (e.g., Bechterew’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Celiac disease).

    mental health natural psychoactive drug users ICEERS study

    Mental Health of Natural Psychoactive Drug Users

    In order to study the patterns of use, the desired effects and the mental health status of individuals who make use of natural psychoactive drugs, ICEERS conducted detailed research through an online questionnaire that collected responses from 564 NPD users from 52 different countries.

    serotonergic hallucinogens recognition facial emotion expressions ICEERS study

    Serotonergic Hallucinogens and Recognition of Facial Expressions

    Recent preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential of serotoninergic hallucinogens in the treatment of mood and anxiety disorders and drug dependence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to present a systematic review of the effects of these substances in the recognition of facial expressions, which is one of the main factors involved in social cognition.

    psychedelics crisis psychopharmacology hallucinogens ICEERS study

    Psychedelics for the Crisis in Psychopharmacology

    A more integrative treatment is required that combines pharmacological tools with psychosocial interventions. Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy could satisfy this need, offering pharmacological action along with enhanced psychotherapeutic interventions.

    serotonergic psychedelics hallucinogens efficacy safety ICEERS study

    Efficacy, Tolerability, and Safety of Serotonergic Psychedelics

    This study summarizes the most compelling evidence from clinical research with serotonergic psychedelics, performing a systematic review of systematic reviews where efficacy, tolerability, and safety have been assessed regarding the management of mood, anxiety, and substance-use disorders.

    psychedelics and personality psicodélicos y personalidad ICEERS study

    Psychedelics and Personality

    Psychedelics can have a positive impact on some dimensions of personality traits, opening a new field of therapeutic possibilities, where personality and associated brain modifications could be the basis of future therapeutic change.

    beach sea psychedelics personality ICEERS study

    Serotonergic Psychedelics and Personality

    Serotonergic psychedelics act as agonists at cortical 5-HT2A receptors, expressed in fronto-temporo-parieto-occipital areas. This study reviews all previous scientific literature regarding the effects of serotonergic psychedelics in modulating users’ personality.

    subjective effects hallucinogens psychedelics study ICEERS ayahuasca

    Measuring the Subjective Effects of Hallucinogens

    The subjective effects of psychedelic drugs are probably their most difficult aspect to measure. Therefore, we used novel psychometric data for the MEQ, HRS, and ARCI questionnaires, proposing preliminary new versions and/or alternative interpretations of the data.

    ketamina ECM experiencias cercanas muerte ketamine near-death experiences ICEERS study

    Near-Death Experiences with Ketamine

    This study aimed to obtain preliminary evidence about the possible relationship, in the realm of subjective effects, between ketamine sessions and near-death experiences. As ketamine produces dissociative experiences, the possible relationships between its use and the possible occurrence of post-traumatic symptomatology are also explored.

    psychedelics changes brain structure neurons study ICEERS

    Long-Term Use of Psychedelics Causes Differences in Brain Structure and Personality

    Psychedelic agents have a long history of use by humans for their capacity to induce profound modifications in perception, emotion and cognitive processes. Despite increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms involved in the acute effects of these drugs, the impact of sustained psychedelic use on the human brain remains largely unknown. Molecular pharmacology studies have shown that psychedelic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)2A agonists stimulate neurotrophic and transcription factors associated with synaptic plasticity. These data suggest that psychedelics could potentially induce structural changes in brain tissue.

    metabolism DMT study smoke ICEERS

    Metabolism and Urinary Disposition of DMT

    This study compares the metabolism and disposition of DMT in a sample of recreational users. Urine samples were obtained after intake via two different administration routes: oral ingestion, and smoked intake.

    alucinógenos etnobotánicos reducción riesgos ethnobotanical hallucinogens risk reduction ICEERS

    Ethnobotanical Hallucinogens and Risk Reduction

    Ethnobotanical hallucinogens are tools that serve to establish bridges between cultures, producing a mutual enrichment between the cultures where the use of these plants originated and those in which they are being implanted.

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